February 4, 2019
Easily Confused Careers
We have over 900 careers profiled in the Explore
Careers section, so it's not surprising that there is sometimes
a little confusion about which careers do what. Trust me -- it's
hard to keep them all straight! I've noticed there are a few
careers that cause more confusion than others. Sometimes the
spelling of one career is close to another. Other times, we can
blame the media for giving us the wrong idea. Here is a list of
some commonly confused careers to clear up any confusion.
Psychologist, Psychiatrist: This is a tricky
one. People in both careers treat mental health issues. But
psychiatrists are medical doctors with a medical degree. That
means they can prescribe medication. There are many different types
of psychologists since this is a broad field. In general,
psychologists study human behavior. Some diagnose problems and
emotional or mental disorders. Some may set up laboratory tests,
while others are involved in counseling. However, because they are
not medical doctors, they cannot prescribe medication.
Physiatrist: To further confuse us,
physiatrists are also medical doctors. They specialize in the
practice of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Personally, I
have to really look closely to distinguish between the words
psychiatrist and physiatrist but, as you can see, their specialties
are quite different.
Careers in Crime: If you watch a lot of crime
shows on TV, you might think the same good-looking person
investigates all aspects of a crime, from gathering evidence to
testing for DNA to interrogating witnesses. According to our
Track Down a Career in Forensic Science, there are actually
many different careers involved in investigating a crime. And most
crimes aren't solved within an hour!
Zookeeper, Zoologist: Again, these are similar
words, but different careers
Zookeepers., as you might expect, work in zoos. Their duties
may include feeding animals and cleaning up after them.
Zoologists could also work in zoos, but many do research. Their
work emphasizes the study of animals, and they might find work as a
director of a zoo or in a university. Many zoologists have
Radiologist, Radiologic Technologist: People in these two careers
both work with X-rays and other diagnostic equipment.
are the people who would work directly
with the patient getting the image.
are the doctors who analyze the results and make a
diagnosis. Obviously these two work together a lot, but there is a
big difference in the amount of education required: 13 to 15 years
to become a radiologist, and two to four years to work as a
Estheticians can do a lot of different things, so it's easy to
get confused about this career. Estheticians can also be called
cosmetologists. They can apply make-up, give facial and skin care
treatments and remove unwanted hair.
I hope I've cleared up a few things! If you have
other questions about careers you're not sure about, don't hesitate
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January 7, 2019
Thinking About Thinking
I was thinking about my brain the other day. (I
can't look at that sentence too much, or I get confused. Can a
brain really think about itself?)
Our brains are busy all day long, even when
we're just hanging out and staring into space. Think about it: just
reading this entry takes a coordinated effort from an army of
neurons, but it's something we usually take for granted. Our eyes
and our brains work together so smoothly that we're not really
aware of what's going on.
I heard a fascinating story that really made me
aware of how little we really know about this interaction. Don
Karkos is a veteran of the Second World War. In 1942, he was
blinded in one eye by a piece of shrapnel. In the following years,
many doctors looked at his eye, but nobody could cure it -- until
he was kicked in the head by a horse. The horse apparently kicked
Karkos in exactly the right spot to restore his sight. Now he can
Neuroscience, the science of studying the brain,
is a fascinating field. As Karkos' story demonstrates, there is a
lot left to discover. In some senses, the "final frontier" is
within us. That means there are a lot of career possibilities in
working with the brain. (Maybe that horse should be thinking about
a career in neuroscience....)
Neurologists treat problems of the brain, spinal cord and
nerves -- the central nervous system. As you might suspect, this is
a very complex field with a lot of responsibility. Since we're
always learning more about the brain, neurologists must update
their skills constantly. New advancements make this an exciting
Doctors who operate on the brain are called
neurosurgeons. Personally, I can't imagine the hand-eye
coordination that would require. (Of course, I have difficulty
hemming pants, so fixing someone's brain seems pretty
overwhelming.) In other words, you need a first-class brain to work
Some of the most interesting work on the way we
think doesn't involve the human brain at all.
Knowledge engineers create computer programs that are supposed
to think like human beings. This process involves something called
"fuzzy logic." Fuzzy logic does not refer to a really bad solution
to a murder mystery, but to the way that humans think. In contrast,
computers usually use "mathematical logic." Confused yet?
If you'd like to know more about how our eyes
work to take in the world, check out the field of ophthalmology.
Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who treat vision
After doing a little research on careers related
to the brain, I've started to develop a healthy respect for my own.
Sure, there are days when I wish it would do a better a job of
remembering where I parked my car, but it's served me well so far.
If you'd like to learn more about what makes your own brain tick,
check out some related careers!
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December 10, 2018
Culinary Careers and the Holidays
When you think of certain holidays, do you think
of some favorite foods? Birthday parties and chocolate cake, July
the 4th and potato salad, Hanukkah and latkes, Christmas and
eggnog... I could go on, but then I would have to go and get a
This a great time of the year to indulge in some
delicious meals. Not only are there are lot of social gatherings,
but something about the colder weather makes me want to head into
the kitchen to whip up some comfort food.
In my family, we somehow started a tradition of
eating trifle (a yummy concoction of custard and cake) on New
Year's Day. I can't even remember how this started, but I like
trifle enough not to question it.
It's interesting: for most of the year, food can
be very trendy. Any chef will tell you that it's tough to keep up
food trends. But on holidays, many people like to stick to what
they know. That's one reason why my mother gave me a cookbook she
created filled with family favorites. What a great gift!
The first cookbook appeared in Rome about 1,600
years ago. A print edition of this book called De re coquinaria
(Latin for "on the subject of cooking") came out in 1483. The
recipes apparently involve a lot of salt and honey -- most likely
because the chefs of the past didn't have refrigerators.
The directions in ancient cookbooks were pretty
Historians don't think they were intended to give specific
directions for cooking meals. And that makes sense if you think
about the structure of society back then. People who could read
well were often in the upper classes, so they hired cooks. Cooks
talked about various cooking techniques amongst themselves, rather
than reading about them.
The recipes gave directions like, "Walk 20 times
around the field," instead of giving specific cooking times. Once
the cook circled the field 20 times, the dish was finished.
We've come a long way since then! Today's chefs
culinary programs, where they can expect a healthy serving of
theory and hands-on learning.
After their training, they can labor over boeuf
bourguignonne or flip burgers. Chefs can create
works of art in chocolate (and hopefully send some to me) or
vegetarian delights. Entrepreneurial sorts can even build a
business around their favorite
family recipes! Food lovers can specialize in any number of
culinary styles: the world is
hungry for cooks and chefs!
I hope you have a safe, fun and delicious
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November 26, 2018
I'm a Word Nerd
There is a murder of crows outside my window as
I write this. Should I call a
crime scene technician? Or an animal
Actually, I would need an
ornithologist. A murder of crows is the way we refer to a group
of crows, just as we say a herd of elephants or a flock of birds.
The word "murder" is the collective noun we use to refer to a group
Some of my other favorite collective nouns
include a sleuth of bears, an ostentation of peacocks and a
mischief of mice (if you've ever had mice in your house, that one
will really seem appropriate).
I think learning new words is fascinating. For
one thing, building my vocabulary helps my Scrabble
game and makes it easier to complete crossword
puzzles ! But it's also great to look at language and how it
evolves and changes.
Lexicographers study new words. They're the people who decide
to add new words to a dictionary. Did you know the word "zoodle"
was recently added to the dictionary that I use? That addition was
the work of a lexicographer. They would also write the definition:
a long, thin strip of zucchini that resembles a string or narrow
ribbon of pasta.
Linguists also study language and how we use it. More high-tech
companies are calling on linguists' knowledge as we incorporate the
concepts of human speech into new technology. If you think
the rules of grammar are stodgy and outdated, just look at how
speech patterns can be incorporated into things like robotics.
Now... what goes inside a zoodle casserole?
November 5, 2018
Staying Professional Online
What was the last crazy thing you did? What
about the most embarrassing thing you've done all year? Is there
photographic proof on Instagram? Would you show those photos to a
parent? What about a college admissions officer?
Do I sound paranoid? I prefer "realistic."
Believe it or not, more colleges are checking out students online
when they're making their admissions decisions. They're reviewing
social media, including Instagram, Facebook and Twitter - but don't
forget they can also access sites like Ask.fm. If it's on the
Internet, it's public. Admissions officers say they're seeing more
posts online that make them reconsider applicants. That's right:
what you put online can impact your chances of getting into
Does this mean the best approach is to stay off
social media altogether? Experts say there's no need to throw away
your phone. Teens socialize and have fun, and in today's world,
it's perfectly normal to document those experiences online. Just
Posting content that shows your interests
outside of school can show colleges and potential employers that
you're a well-rounded person. You want your online presence to be
something you can be proud of down the road.
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September 17, 2018
Did you know that September 21st is recognized
as the International Day of Peace? I didn't know about this day,
but I'm glad to learn it exists! The United Nations established
this day in 1981, and devoted it to "commemorating and
strengthening the ideals of peace within and among all nations and
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary describes peace
as "a state of tranquility; freedom from civil disturbance; harmony
in personal relations; a state of accord and agreement between
Everyone understands the importance of peace.
But we know that living in harmony takes effort. So, the
International Day of Peace is a good reason to explore careers
devoted to keeping things calm.
In the business world, peace-relations skills are used in
all areas of government, private industries and non-profit
It is a common practice for companies to hire a
mediator to resolve disputes about employment, business
contracts and other claims. Many public and private institutions
ombudsman whose duty is to investigate and resolve
complaints made by individuals. They play an important role in
helping an organization maintain the public's trust. Large
corporations might hire a
labor relations negotiator or an arbitrator
in an effort settle disagreements and avoid
In the community at-large,
police officers are often referred to as "peace
officers". Their duties are to maintain law and order. Often, the
mere presence of a police officer is enough to bring peace to an
Ever hear of a
justice of the peace? This is a type of judge who hears cases
that involve civic complaints, like small-claims court, or minor
criminal complaints and also performs marriages.
On a global level, there are thousands of
peacekeepers assigned to troubled areas around the world. They
navigate between conflict and peace to help countries and their
Are you interested in a peaceful career? If you
enroll in a peace and conflict studies program, you will learn the
art of tact, diplomacy and negotiation--crucial skills when
handling negotiations between people.
Here's to peace! Let's pursue it and appreciate
September 3, 2018
Back to School Resolutions
I don't know about you, but I always loved the
start of school. At first, it was all about fashion and
socializing. Returning to school was a time for new clothes in
richer colors and cozier fabrics. It was the chance to reconnect
with friends and fill my social calendar with plans and
Then classes started. Shopping and mingling gave
way to studying, and before I knew it, I was a student again --
albeit a better dressed one.
Fortunately, I liked school and loved learning
things. However, it always took a while to figure what worked for
me when I was studying. Sometimes, I learned the hard way, like the
time a bad mark on a physics test taught me that studying while
watching Wonder Woman reruns wasn't the best idea.
Now is a great time to make some resolutions
about your own study habits. Try thinking back to last year to
figure out the areas in which you can improve.
Did you allow enough time for studying? If not,
you might want to have a good look at a typical week's schedule,
perhaps starting with your TV viewing. (I speak from
Were you able to concentrate on your work? If
focusing was a problem, think about your study environment -- are
there a lot of distractions? Get some tips on making the most of
your study time from our article
Successful Study Techniques.
Did you have trouble keeping up with your
schedule and were you often surprised by due dates? Learn to manage
your time with the article
Time Management 101.
Did you have a hard time figuring out "the
point" of an assignment or required text? It could be time to brush
up on your critical thinking skills. Find out what this means in
How to Improve Your Critical Thinking Skills.
Take it from me: a little thought now can go a
long way towards a successful academic year. Good luck!
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